Dyeing refers to the process of adding color to textile or fiber stock, yarn, or fabric. The dye could not completely permeate the yarn or fibers.
Understanding the dyeing helps in enhancing the textile sourcing and you are able to buy high quality materials. Dyeing is only possible with plant, animal, or synthetic fibers if the dye has affinity for the fiber type. Direct or substantive dyes have a high affinity for cellulose fibers and are applicable mostly for dying wool, silk, and nylon. For mordant dyes to develop an affinity for the material get shade, it is necessary to add chemical compounds such as salts. They get apply after the application of metal salts to cellulose fibers, wool, or silk. Sulfur dyes are often apply to color cellulose, and although they are cheap, the resulting colors are dull.
To create an azoic dye, a soluble coupling agent gets apply to make an interfacial bond with the fiber, and then the fiber get pad with a diazotized base to create an insoluble pigment. Dye vats, which are insoluble in water, have treatment with alkaline sodium hydrosulfite to produce colorless chemicals that are easily get dissolve in water. These odorless chemicals get apply by the cellulose and oxidized into an insoluble pigment. The colors won’t fade after use of these dyes. To color hydrophobic fabrics like polyesters, nylons, and cellulose acetates, disperse dyes get involve. These dyes are suspensions of finely split insoluble, organic pigments.
Excellent colorfastness get achieve when reactive dyes interact directly with the fabric. Midway through the 1950s, the first families of reactive dyes for cellulose fibers were on the market. As a result of modern production methods, consumers may now choose from a diverse inventory.
Methods of dyeing
1) Bale Dyeing:
One inexpensive approach to dying cotton fabric is a process famous as bale dying. The material get immerse in cold water, where the warp size has a natural affinity for the dye, without first get source. This method of dying is often used on imitation chambray and similar materials.
2) Batik Dyeing:
Batik Dyeing is one of the first techniques used by humans. Java is the place where it first appeared. Only the unwaxed parts of the cloth will absorb the color. The process get repeat with different colors to create ever-more-outrageous results. The mottled or blotchy appearance of certain motifs is a nod to the machine printing technique that mimics them.
3) Beam Dyeing:
beam dying involves coloring the warp before it is woven. The yarn is dyed by winding it onto a beam with small holes and forcing the dye through them.
4) Burl or speck Dyeing:
Typically performed on woolens or worsteds, this process involves the application of coloured links of varying hues and sizes to hide imperfections. Manual labor is essential.
5) Chain Dyeing:
When the tensile strength of yarns and fabrics is low, chain dyeing is an option. Multiple pieces of fabric get stich together at regular intervals and sent into the dye bath all at once. Also, this approach allows for a lot of output.
6) Cross Dyeing:
Cross dying is a common technique that allows for a wide range of color effects to get fulfil in a single dye bath, even when the fabric in question is produce from fibers with different affinities for the dye. As an example, a blue dyestuff may turn nylon 6 into a dark blue color, nylon 6 into a light blue color, and polyester into an unaffected white color.
7) Jig Dyeing:
The seventh method, popular as “jig dying,” involves arranging the items that need dye in a grid like pattern within a jig, kier, vat, beck, or other vessel. Fabric get treatment from roller to roller in a vat of dye until the require color get print.
8) Piece Dyeing:
Piece Dyeing, also known as cut, bolt, or piece dyeing, is the process of coloring cloth in its pre-cut, pre-bolted, or pre-pieced state. Fabrics like blue serge and green organdy have a uniform hue because of this process.
9) Random Dyeing:
Spot-dyeing, in which the yarn have shades in just certain locations. These colorings can be perform in three different ways:
Tightly dyed skeins might have one color on one side of the dye and a different color on the other. The skeins, which are laid out in a blanket pattern on the printing machine’s blanket cloth, may be imprinted with color.
The yarn and the dyestuff gets pull through the holes in the cones or packages of yarn on the hollow spindles by suction. The cones or packages of yarn get an arrangement to create channels. The yarn around the punch takes up the color, creating the chaotic effects.
10) Raw Stock Dyeing:
Raw materials Yarn do not get further treatment until the fiber supply gets color. Once the wool has been cleaned and dried, it is ready to be dyed.
11) Solution Dyeing:
The pigment color gets bond in the solution. And is consider when the filaments are forming in the liquor during the solution dyeing process, also known as dope dyeing or spun dyeing. This technique is ideal for dying both cellulosic and non-cellulosic fibers. The hues are vivid, crisp, and brisk.
12) Yarn dyed:
Dyed yarn is spun yarn that get color after spinning but before it gets apply to a woven product. Further, the yarn may be submerged to varying depths, or it can be dipped directly into the water.
Process of dyeing
The term “dye liquor” or “dye bath” refers to the solution used to accomplish the dying process on textile fibers. Fabric color and absorption are two key indicators of successful dyeing.
To be considered “permanent,” the coloring cannot be easily removed by rinsing with water or other common cleaning methods. More importantly, the coloring shouldn’t wash out too quickly when exposed to sunlight.
The dye molecules adhere to the fiber by an absorbing process, where they congregate on the fiber’s surface. As a result of four different types of forces, dye molecules are held to the fiber:
Vander Wals’ forces
Covalent chemical linkages
Dyeing of wool
Wool is dyed by adding sulfuric acid to the dye solution, which creates ionic connections with the amino groups of the protein. Wool is a complex protein having roughly 20 distinct amino acids. During the dying process, the negative ion (anion) of sulfate get exchange for the anion (also negative) of the dye. Also, hydrogen bonds are likely get formation between azo, amino, alkyl amino, and other groups with the amino Co-NH-groups in the dyeing of wool, silk, and synthetic fibers. In the presence of alkali, a fiber-reactive dye molecule with a reactive center and a hydro-oxy group of a cotton fiber react to form covalent chemical linkages in the dye-bath.
Dyeing procedure makes the textile worthy to use and gives a beautiful appearance to it. There are multiple processes with which you can perform the process as per your choice. Every method and technique has its own advantages and disadvantages, features and flaws. If you want to dye your material or sourcing fabric as per your choice yet unable to do it due to lack of resources available. Then log into fabriclore online store. Here you will get thousands of textile options from leading fabric vendors. Also, with our team of textile experts you can design material for your own collection.